Sebanyak 60 item atau buku ditemukan

Co-operative learning in German early childhood institutions

Bachelor Thesis from the year 2006 in the subject Pedagogy - Nursery Pedagogy, Early Childhood Education, grade: 2,0, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen (Radboud University Nijmegen, Netherlands), course: "Training in educational research", 9 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Co-operative learning is widely recognised as a pedagogical practise that promotes learning and socialisation. Although there are many different forms of co-operative learning, consensus exists among the researchers about its positive effects on the student achievement. Numerous of studies that have been published over the past three decades could prove and demonstrate that forms of co-operative learning have benefits for the intellectual development and child’s social gains. Co-operative learning affects the ability to construct knowledge and to build inter-group relations, enhances the child’s self-esteem, and promotes the child’s problem-solving skills (Liu, 1992). Research (Slavin,1995) on co-operative learning has further indicated that cooperative learning improves students’ attitude toward school, learning and others. In fact, Johnson and Johnson who are well-known for their research in this field, argue that there may be no other pedagogical practises that simultaneously achieve such diverse outcomes. Most of the research took place in the range of primary school up to high school, but it is interesting to examine how co-operative learning can be used and is used in the early childhood institutions, especially in the German kindergarten. Over the years, early childhood education has stressed the importance of co-operative learning for the young child’s development, and it is proved that the early learning of cooperative skills produce a long lasting effect and increase the probability of children’s success throughout their school years (Lui, 1992). In spite of knowing the benefits and the positive effectiveness for the child’s development, co-operative learning is not a common practise in schools for several reasons. Educators are confused about what cooperative learning is, are not well-educated in the techniques and have a lack of discipline to implement the basics of co-operative learning in the classroom.

Most of the research took place in the range of primary school up to high school, but it is interesting to examine how co-operative learning can be used and is used in the early childhood institutions, especially in the German kindergarten.

An empirical analysis of labor income processes

In this paper we reassess the evidence on labor income risk. There are two leading views on the nature of the income process in the current literature. The first view, which we call the "Restricted Income Profiles" (RIP) process, holds that individuals are subject to large and very persistent shocks, while facing similar life-cycle income profiles. The alternative view, which we call the "Heterogeneous Income Profiles" (HIP) process, holds that individuals are subject to income shocks with modest persistence, while facing individual-specific income profiles.We first show that ignoring profile heterogeneity, when in fact it is present, introduces an upward bias into the estimates of persistence. Second, we estimate a parsimonious parameterization of the HIP process that is suitable for calibrating economic models. The estimated persistence is about 0.8 in the HIP process compared to about 0.99 in the RIP process. Moreover, the heterogeneity in income profiles is estimated to be substantial, explaining between 56 to 75 percent of income inequality at age 55. We also find that profile heterogeneity is substantially larger among higher educated individuals. Third, we discuss the source of identification -- in other words, the aspects of labor income data that allow one to distinguish between the HIP and RIP processes. Finally, we show that the main evidence against profile heterogeneity in the existing literature -- that the autocorrelations of income changes are small and negative -- is also replicated by the HIP process, suggesting that this evidence may have been misinterpreted.

Finally, we show that the main evidence against profile heterogeneity in the existing literature -- that the autocorrelations of income changes are small and negative -- is also replicated by the HIP process, suggesting that this evidence ...

SWOT analysis of transition countries in the Baltic Sea region

Seminar paper from the year 2002 in the subject Organisation and Administration, grade: 1,7 (A-), Kiel University of Applied Sciences (Business Management), course: Seminar: Selected Topics in English, 30 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: The Baltic Sea Region, including relatively poor countries such as Poland, Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania but also economic giants such as Denmark, Finland or Sweden, is discussed controversially in literature. The Financial Times calls the region an "economic tiger" or even "the Engine Room of Europe" (Burt 1999, 1). Others do not see such good prospective and rather warn that "positive trends should not lead to total optimism ... [because, in their view,] economic integration comprising all states bordering the Baltic Sea is not easily to be visualized in the near future" (NEBI Yearbook 1998, 5). The decision of a company, whether to invest or to go public in a certain country, should be based (mainly) on the analysis of the region which is not always an easy task. The main objective of this paper is thus to analyse the economic situation in the Eastern Baltic Rim countries by looking at the integration process into the EU, the successes in attracting foreign investors, and the success of the transforming process in general by the means of a SWOT analysis. Theoretical information will give the ability to understand Chapters three through seven on strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the region.

Seminar paper from the year 2002 in the subject Organisation and Administration, grade: 1,7 (A-), Kiel University of Applied Sciences (Business Management), course: Seminar: Selected Topics in English, 30 entries in the bibliography, ...