Sebanyak 235 item atau buku ditemukan

Filsafat politik Pancasila

refleksi atas teks perumusan Pancasila

Criticism on Pancasila, the state philosophy of Indonesia, from a political philosophy viewpoint.

Tapi saya menuntut bahwa tujuan fundamental negara tidak boleh dihilangkan;
yang saya maksud adalah perlindungan atas kebebasan yang tidak
membahayakan warga lainnya. Sehingga saya menuntut negara untuk
membatasi kebebasan warga negara seadil mungkin, dan tidak lebih dari apa
yang diperlukan untuk mencapai pembatasan kebebasan yang sama".
Gambaran Popper di atas merupakan suatu bentuk liberalisme. Liberalisme dan
campur tangan negara tidak ...

Mencari Sila Kelima

Sejak berusia enam tahun, ada begitu banyak pertanyaan yang tumpang-tindih di kepalaku. Mengapa orang-orang kerap bersikap manis kepada mereka yang dianggap berkedudukan dan kaya, tapi bersikap dingin kepada mereka yang berpakaian lusuh dan tak punya apa-apa? Mengapa banyak pemuka agama yang menyebarkan kebencian kepada golongan yang berbeda, padahal mereka pula yang menyuarakan bahwa agama adalah perwujudan kasih kepada sesama? Mengapa manusia suka sekali mengotakkan sesamanya ke dalam label tertentu: si Hitam, si Putih, si Miskin, si Kaya, si Pandai, si Bodoh, si Jawa, atau si Tionghoa? Gelembung-gelembung pertanyaan itu terus mengimpitku. Ketidakadilan yang kurasakan rupanya dianggap sebagai sebuah kewajaran. Aku tak mau menjadi anak yang digadang-gadang sebagai bintang tapi pendidikannya justru menjauhkannya dari kebenaran. Dan kini, kucari makna pada sila kelima Pancasila: di manakah keadilan yang dijanjikan kepada seluruh rakyat Indonesia? [Mizan, Bentang Pustaka, Pancasila, Negara, Bangsa, Masyarakat, Rakyat, Indonesia]

Tentu saja ada banyak orang yang berpendapat “semua agama sama saja”.
Orang-orang ini mengaku tidak berprasangka. Namun, biasanya orang-orang ini
bukan tidak berprasangka, melainkan tidak berprinsip; mereka hidup hanya
untuk kesenangan pribadi, untuk kepentingan diri sendiri. Jadi, bagaimana
caranya agar kita beragama dengan benar, agar agama yang berbeda-beda di
tanah air semuanya berfungsi sebagai tali pemersatu bangsa, bukannya alat
perpecahan?

Mind, Brain, and Free Will

Richard Swinburne presents a powerful new case for substance dualism and for libertarian free will. He argues that pure mental events (including conscious events) are distinct from physical events and interact with them, and claims that no result from neuroscience or any other science could show that interaction does not take place. Swinburne goes on to argue for agent causation, and claims that it is we, and not our intentions, that cause our brain events. It ismetaphysically possible that each of us could acquire a new brain or continue to exist without a brain; and so we are essentially souls. Brain events and conscious events are so different from each other that it would not be possible to establish a scientific theory which would predict what each ofus would do in situations of moral conflict. Hence, we should believe that things are as they seem to be: that we make choices independently of the causes which influence us. It follows that we are morally responsible for our actions.

But many of the arguments by which I support those conclusions are different,
and—I believe—deeper and stronger, based on a full discussion of underlying
philosophical issues (e. g. the criteria for the identity of events and substances,
and the grounds for asserting that a certain state of affairs is metaphysically
possible) which underlie differences among philosophers about issues of mind
and body. Also, this book includes a far fuller, and to my mind far more
satisfactory, discussion ...

Brain and Mind

Modern Concepts of the Nature of Mind

Presenting some modern views on the problem of the nature of mind and its relationship to the brain, this book, published in 1965, brings together contributors from various disciplines which are affected by this issue. Coming from different philosophical outlooks as well as subjects, these contributors also comment on each other’s’ chapters with a view of developing thought on the approaches to the problem. The theory of mind-brain relationship is vital to human interest and has been in debate throughout western thought over centuries, split mainly into dualist and monistic theories. These discussions had and still have wide impact philosophy, psychology, religion and cosmology, among other areas.

PREFACE THE problem of the nature of the mind and its relationship to the brain
is one that naturally concerns a number of different disciplines—philosophy,
psychology, psychiatry, neurology and neurobiology. This book presents some
modern views on this subject and the contributors, drawn from these various
disciplines, consist of four philosophers, one neuroanatomist, one neurologist,
one psychiatrist, one psychologist and a cybernetician. The central thesis to all
these essays ...

Brain and Being

At the Boundary Between Science, Philosophy, Language and Arts

This book results from a group meeting held at the Institute for Scientific Exchange in Torino, Italy. The central aim was for scientists to “think together” in new ways with those in the humanities inspired by quantum theory and especially quantum brain theory. These fields of inquiry have suffered conceptual estrangement but now are ripe for rapprochement, if academic parochialism is put aside. A prevalent theme of the book is a moving away from individual elements and individual actors acting upon each other, toward a coordinate hermeneutic dynamics that manifests as a coherent totality. Among the topics covered are image in photography and in neuroscience; language; time; brain and mathematics; quantum brain dynamics and quantum communication.

"Istituto di Fisica Teorica, Napoli, Italy bGruppo Nazionale di Cibernetica del CNR
On the basis of a recent physical theory of many-body problems developed in our
Institute,1 a model of the brain is formulated, and it is shown how some of its
typical features, such as learning and memory processes, find therein a natural
and simple explanation. In the Appendix a short surview of the necessary
mathematical formalism is finally given. 1. Introduction Although nowadays the
study of ...

The Brain and the Meaning of Life

Why is life worth living? What makes actions right or wrong? What is reality and how do we know it? The Brain and the Meaning of Life draws on research in philosophy, psychology, and neuroscience to answer some of the most pressing questions about life's nature and value. Paul Thagard argues that evidence requires the abandonment of many traditional ideas about the soul, free will, and immortality, and shows how brain science matters for fundamental issues about reality, morality, and the meaning of life. The ongoing Brain Revolution reveals how love, work, and play provide good reasons for living. Defending the superiority of evidence-based reasoning over religious faith and philosophical thought experiments, Thagard argues that minds are brains and that reality is what science can discover. Brains come to know reality through a combination of perception and reasoning. Just as important, our brains evaluate aspects of reality through emotions that can produce both good and bad decisions. Our cognitive and emotional abilities allow us to understand reality, decide effectively, act morally, and pursue the vital needs of love, work, and play. Wisdom consists of knowing what matters, why it matters, and how to achieve it. The Brain and the Meaning of Life shows how brain science helps to answer questions about the nature of mind and reality, while alleviating anxiety about the difficulty of life in a vast universe. The book integrates decades of multidisciplinary research, but its clear explanations and humor make it accessible to the general reader.

No: this chapter will provide good reasons for basing beliefs and decisions on
evidence rather than on faith. After a brief history of the conflict between scientific
evidence and religious faith, I will describe how faith and evidence differ in the
way they affect beliefs and decisions. I will use medicine as an informative area
in which the superiority of evidence over faith is clear, and generalize this
superiority to other domains, including philosophy. Although the tradition of a
priori reasoning ...

Membangun kembali pikiran Agana Dalam Islam

gerak melingkar jang tetap, akan mengakibatkan gagasan tentang ke- abadian
tak dapat diterima samasekali. Nietzsche sendiri merasakan ini, dan
menggambarkan akidahnja bukan sebagai akidah tentang ke- abadian, tetapi
lebih berupa pandangan hidtip jang menjebabkan kita sanggup mendjalani
keabadian. Dan apakah jang menjebabkan demi- Itian menurut Nietzsche ?
Jang menjebabkannja adalah harapan bahwa luatu peru.angan kombinasi pusat
-pusat-energi, jang ...

Filsafat Hukum Akar Reliositas Hukum

Hukum bukan sekadar jalinan tulisan tanpa makna, tetapi ia menjadi hidup ketika digerakkan oleh manusia yang memiliki moral. Buku ini mencoba melihat gagasan moral sebagai jiwa hukum yang diperoleh dari kandungan kitab suci Al-Quran sebagai samudra ilmu pengetahuan. Moral religius yang ada dalam Al-Quran sudah mulai dijauhkan dari hukum, sehingga hukum hanya tampak bagai tubuh tanpa jiwa. Pendekatan hukum Islam acap kali juga sangat dogmatik dengan menyederhanakan persoalan hukum dengan semata berbicara halal dan haram tanpa melihat sisi lainnya, yaitu moral. Secara ontologi hukum, hendak dilihat esensi yang terdapat dalam Al-Quran mengenai hakikat hukum dan keadilan. Secara epistemologi dikaji berbagai metode peletakan moral hukum bagi manusia sejak dalam pembentukan keluarga hingga dalam hubungan berbangsa. Secara aksiologi pada ujung dari pemikiran ini akan dicapai tujuan dari pelaksanaan moral hukum.Ê ------- Penerbit Kencana (Prenadamedia Group)

Dalam konteks hubungan manusia dan negara, Islam mencoba
mengetengahkan sebuah bentuk demokrasi Islam yang dikenal dengan bentuk
nomokrasi Islam. Hubungan atas kekuasaan sebagai bentuk kehendak manusia
dan terikat nilai ketuhanan sekaligus. C. MENJALANKAN KEKUASAAN
Menjalankan kekuasaan dalam tulisan ini dimaksudkan sebagai sebuah
pertanyaan mengenai bagaimana sebuah kekuasaan itu dijalankan sesuai
dengan kaidah-kaidah atau asas-asas ...