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Diplomacy, Roger Makins and the Anglo-American Relationship

Roger Makins, British Ambassador to Washington 1953-1956, was one of the most prominent and powerful diplomats of his time. His career was unusual for a Foreign Office official, in that such a large part of it took place in Washington and London, and was centered on Anglo-American relationships. This book describes his life, times and the important players he dealt with on both sides of the Atlantic. It sheds light on how the ‘special relationship’ between Britain and America developed, and shows how great an impact a civil servant can have on policy.

Bevin respected makins' ability to find his way around the american
establishment and used makins to find ways around potential obstacles to
influencing american policy. one such obstacle, for example, was the concern
some americans had ...

Humanism and Protestantism in Early Modern English Education

This volume is the first attempt to assess the impact of both humanism and Protestantism on the education offered to a wide range of adolescents in the hundreds of grammar schools operating in England between the Reformation and the Enlightenment. By placing that education in the context of Lutheran, Calvinist and Jesuit education abroad, it offers an overview of the uses to which Latin and Greek were put in English schools, and identifies the strategies devised by clergy and laity in England for coping with the tensions between classical studies and Protestant doctrine. It also offers a reassessment of the role of the 'godly' in English education, and demonstrates the many ways in which a classical education came to be combined with close support for the English Crown and established church. One of the major sources used is the school textbooks which were incorporated into the 'English Stock' set up by leading members of the Stationers' Company of London and reproduced in hundreds of thousands of copies during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Although the core of classical education remained essentially the same for two centuries, there was a growing gulf between the methods by which classics were taught in elite institutions such as Winchester and Westminster and in the many town and country grammar schools in which translations or bilingual versions of many classical texts were given to weaker students. The success of these new translations probably encouraged editors and publishers to offer those adults who had received little or no classical education new versions of works by Aesop, Cicero, Ovid, Virgil, Seneca and Caesar. This fascination with ancient Greece and Rome left its mark not only on the lifestyle and literary tastes of the educated elite, but also reinforced the strongly moralistic outlook of many of the English laity who equated virtue and good works with pleasing God and meriting salvation.

In the first part of this chapter, we will look at the two-stage grammar most often
used in the lower forms of English grammar schools - the Shorte introduction of
grammar and the Brevissima institutio associated with William Lily; then in the
rest of the chapter we will examine the typical reading materials through which
beginners were led next. In one form or another 'Lily's grammar' remained the
most commonly used grammar in England for over three hundred years, and
helped shape ...

Humanism and Protestantism in Early Modern English Education

This volume is the first attempt to assess the impact of both humanism and Protestantism on the education offered to a wide range of adolescents in the hundreds of grammar schools operating in England between the Reformation and the Enlightenment. By placing that education in the context of Lutheran, Calvinist and Jesuit education abroad, it offers an overview of the uses to which Latin and Greek were put in English schools, and identifies the strategies devised by clergy and laity in England for coping with the tensions between classical studies and Protestant doctrine. It also offers a reassessment of the role of the 'godly' in English education, and demonstrates the many ways in which a classical education came to be combined with close support for the English Crown and established church.

In the first part of this chapter, we will look at the two-stage grammar most often
used in the lower forms of English grammar schools - the Shorte introduction of
grammar and the Brevissima institutio associated with William Lily; then in the
rest of the chapter we will examine the typical reading materials through which
beginners were led next. In one form or another 'Lily's grammar' remained the
most commonly used grammar in England for over three hundred years, and
helped shape ...

Action Research for Sustainability

Social Imagination Between Citizens and Scientists

How can action research further new research orientations towards sustainability? This book, empirically situated in the field of upstream public engagement, involving local residents, researchers and practitioners in bottom-up processes deliberating on urban sustainability, answers this question by analysing processes of social learning. The book addresses the need to move towards sustainability at societal level as a democratic challenge questioning the way we live on planet earth. By conceptualising sustain-ability as an immanent and emergent ability of ecological and social life, continuously to renew itself without eroding its own foundation of existence, it argues that since sustainability cannot be invented but only supported (or eroded) by science, we need to reframe science in the role of sustaining sustain-ability. Through analyses of a three year action research programme, aiming to provide local citizens with a greater say in the future of urban sustainability research, this book shows how action research can make important methodological contributions to processes of social learning between citizens and scientists by enabling free spaces in peoples everyday life and within academia, where aspects of un-sustainability can be addressed and new imaginations of more sustainable futures emerge.

The SuScit project was an initiative specifically seeking to provide local urban
communities with a greater say in how priorities for environmental and
sustainability research are defined, so as to ensure that future research more
effectively addresses their needs. to do so the project methodologically aimed to
develop new forms of collaboration between sustainability researchers,
practitioners and local communities. thus the project provides an example of
upstream public engagement ...

Islam Beyond Conflict

Indonesian Islam and Western Political Theory

This volume explores the extent to which moderate Indonesian Islam is able to assimilate leading concepts from Western political theory. The essays explore how concepts from Western political theory are compatible with a liberal interpretation of Islamic universals and how such universals can form the basis for a contemporary approach to the protection of human rights and the articulation of a modern Islamic civil society.

The basic outlook of shari'ah advocated by the theory of al-maqasid was never
completely denied by any of the leading schools of law, although some were
more open to the theory and science of al-maqasid than others. Indeed, except
for ... Al-Juwayni's ideas were then further developed by his pupil, Abu Hamid al-
Ghazali (1111) who wrote at length on the doctrines of maslaha (public interest)
and ta 7/7 (ratiocination) in his works Shifa' al-Ghalil and Al-Mustasfa min 'Ilm al-
Usul.

Working Women and their Rights in the Workplace

International Human Rights and Its Impact on Libyan Law

This book addresses women’s rights to work and motherhood in Libya from a legal and international human rights perspective. In an attempt to solve the problem posed by the perception that there is an unsolvable conflict between the right of women to work and their right to motherhood, the author considers how these two sets of rights, as protected under international human rights law, can and should be recognised and promoted within the Libyan legal system. Including first-hand accounts of experiences of Libyan women, the study voices their struggle for their rights as guaranteed by domestic law, international conventions and Islam. Providing a rare insight into a region striving to find its new identity, the author assesses the adequacy of existing Libyan laws and, where warranted, offers proposals for legislative amendments to Libyan policy makers and its new Parliament at such a crucial time in the nation’s history.

International Human Rights and Its Impact on Libyan Law Naeima Faraj A.A. Al-
Hadad. Jamahiriya Kafalah Qur'ān Shar'iah Sunnah Wali Wilaya glossary of
arabic terms state of masses islamic system of adoption the holy book of islam
revealed by allah to the prophet muhammad (pBUh); contains the divine
message that muslims believe to be unaltered since its revelation islamic law the
traditions of the prophet muhammad (pBUh) a benefactor, companion, protector,
governor; the ...

Museums and Design Education

Looking to Learn, Learning to See

How can museum educators and higher education tutors enhance the way HE students use museums? There are many examples in the UK of museums and universities working together in productive and innovative ways, but these relationships tend to be based on individual enthusiasm and opportunistic arrangements. Despite the growing importance of museum education departments, higher education tends to be overlooked by museums. This book looks at the interaction between design students and museums, and explores issues, projects and emerging ideas about how museums can better support HE students. It illustrates the general lessons that can be learnt, both strategic and practical, which can help to bring about long-term and constructive relationships between museums and universities in order to enable effective student learning.

Learning settingsfor design education have followed a predictable pattern. There
has been some appreciation by design educators of the value to the learning
process of industry and workplace experiences, and thecurriculum of mostdesign
schools includes industrybased projectsand someformof workplace experiences.
Butthe magnitudeof learning experiences that can takeplace outsidethe
academic setting and the studiohas notbeen appreciated fullyby Design Learning
in an ...

Spatial Design Education

New Directions for Pedagogy in Architecture and Beyond

Design education in architecture and allied disciplines is the cornerstone of design professions that contribute to shaping the built environment of the future. In this book, design education is dealt with as a paradigm whose evolutionary processes, underpinning theories, contents, methods, tools, are questioned and critically examined. It features a comprehensive discussion on design education with a focus on the design studio as the backbone of that education and the main forum for creative exploration and interaction, and for knowledge acquisition, assimilation, and reproduction. Through international and regional surveys, the striking qualities of design pedagogy, contemporary professional challenges and the associated sociocultural and environmental needs are identified. Building on twenty-five years of research and explorations into design pedagogy in architecture and urban design, this book authoritatively offers a critical analysis of a continuously evolving profession, its associated societal processes and the way in which design education reacts to their demands. Matters that pertain to traditional pedagogy, its characteristics and the reactions developed against it in the form of pioneering alternative studio teaching practices. Advances in design approaches and methods are debated including critical inquiry, empirical making, process-based learning, and Community Design, Design-Build, and Live Project Studios. Innovative teaching practices in lecture-based and introductory design courses are identified and characterized including inquiry-based, active and experiential learning. These investigations are all interwoven to elucidate a comprehensive understanding of contemporary design education in architecture and allied disciplines. A wide spectrum of teaching approaches and methods is utilized to reveal a theory of a ‘trans-critical’ pedagogy that is conceptualized to shape a futuristic thinking about design teaching. Lessons learned from techniques and mechanisms for accommodation, adaptation, and implementation of a ‘trans-critical’ pedagogy in education are conceived to invigorate a new student-centered, evidence-based design culture sheltered in a wide variety of learning settings in architecture and beyond.

Over the past decade concerns about the quality of undergraduate professional
education have significantly risen and there has been a worrying flood of reports
and position papers regarding this. Highly critical reports with catchy titles
continue to roll off the presses,1 these, in turn, have generated intensive
discussion and debate in the literature of most disciplines. However, it is not the
quantity, but the focus of this new round of criticism and discourse that is
important: a focus which ...

John Wallis: Writings on Music

John Wallis (1616-1703), was one of the foremost British mathematicians of the seventeenth century, and is also remembered for his important writings on grammar and logic. An interest in music theory led him to produce translations into Latin of three ancient Greek texts - those of Ptolemy, Porphyry and Bryennius - and involved him in discussions with Henry Oldenburg, the Secretary of the Royal Society, Thomas Salmon and others as his ideas developed. The texts presented here cover the relationship of ancient and modern tuning theory, the building of organs, the phenomena of resonance, and other musical topics.

The texts presented here cover the relationship of ancient and modern tuning theory, the building of organs, the phenomena of resonance, and other musical topics.