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Code-switching: Grammatical, Pragmatic and Psycholinguistic Aspects. An Overview Paper

Seminar paper from the year 2002 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics, grade: 1,5, Free University of Berlin, 56 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: The aim of this paper is to provide a complete overview over the phenomenon of code-switching. In this paper, we will summarize the knowledge currently available on the discourse, linguistic and psycholinguistic aspects of code-switching. Such an overview can be used for different purposes: for seminar reports and papers, and for the preparation for exams in linguistics. The history of the research of code-switching has undergone various periods that have shown how complex the phenomenon of code-switching is. In the course of research of code-switching it has become clear that code-switching can be investigated from different perspectives. Researchers focussed on code-switching after they had realised that linguistic forms and practices are interrelated. And code-switching, in its turn, embodies not only variation, but the link between linguistic form and language use as social practice. Research from a linguistic and psycholinguistic perspective has focussed on understanding the nature of the systematicity of code-switching, as a way of revealing linguistic and potentially cognitive processes. Research on the psychological and social dimensions of code-switching has largely been devoted to answering the questions of why speakers code-switch and what the social meaning of code-switching is for them. The sociological perspective later goes on to attempt to use the answer to those questions to illuminate how language operates as a social process. Throughout the history of research on code-switching it has been proposed that it is necessary to link all these forms of analysis and that, indeed, it is that possibility that is one of the most compelling reasons for studying code-switching, since such a link would permit the development and verification of hypotheses reg

Seminar paper from the year 2002 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics, grade: 1,5, Free University of Berlin, 56 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: The aim of this paper is to provide a ...

The french influence on the english vocabulary in middle english

Seminar paper from the year 2000 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics, grade: 1,3, Technical University of Braunschweig (Englisches Seminar), course: Historical Linguistics, 7 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: The French influence on the English vocabulary had its greatest expansion in the period of the Middle English (1150 – 1500). During this time over 10,000 French words were adapted into the English language and about 75 per cent of these are still in use. The reasons for that are, firstly, the bilingualism in England which had been prevailing since the Norman Conquest in 1066. Secondly, the English culture was regarded as inferior, i.e. it had more to gain from the language spoken by the upper classes. Although, these extensive changes were important for the improvement of the English language, there were also disadvantages to it. The loss of native words, the different Middle English dialects, the need of a Standard English are only some examples for this. Does that mean the English we speak today would not have been the same, if there had been no French influence? Undoubtedly, every influence on something does change the circumstances of it, otherwise it would not be an influence. The question now would be, if English really profited from the French language or if it was more a drawback to its further development. I want to deal with this matter of fact in my research paper. I will show the historical conditions from the Norman Conquest up to the 15th century in a diachronical way, as it is important to know about the situation in England at that time to understand the changes in the English language. As the French influence hardly affected the English grammar, I only consider the changes in the vocabulary. I also briefly refer to other language borrowings to show that the French influence was not the only one, but the most effective in the period of great change – the Middle English.

During this time over 10,000 French words were adapted into the English language and about 75 per cent of these are still in use.

Sociolinguistics, Solidarity and Politeness

Seminar paper from the year 2007 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics, grade: 1,0, University of Duisburg-Essen, course: Language Variation and Change, 13 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: The purpose of the present paper from a sociolinguistic stance is to consider the aspects of solidarity and politeness including face-threatening acts from the point of view of their linguistic components, relevance for social interaction and their usage in male/female discourse. In addition, the apparent complexity of the sociolinguistic dimension of solidarity and politeness will be dealt with to give details to the function and consequence which arises from the use of address terms as well as politeness and solidarity patterns reflecting complex social relationships linguistically. In essence, this paper will show that certain linguistic choices a speaker makes indicate the social relationship that the speaker perceives to exist between his or her interlocutor. Aspects of social relationships, such as distance, solidarity or intimacy are given linguistic expression by address systems consisting of a T/V distinction and address terms. This way, speakers are given the chance to either be more formal or less formal with their interlocutor on certain occasions (Hickey 2007: 3). Hence, the aim of this chapter is to consider the basic concepts and terminology of a T/V distinction as well as forms of address and so pointing out the only two pronominal variants tu and vous of address in French and German which either represent social distance or intimacy between interlocutors. In addition, a general description of the semantic evolution of the two pronouns of address will be offered. In dealing with the pronouns of address in French and German from the point of view of their function in actual speech, this chapter describes on the one hand the semantic differences existing today

Seminar paper from the year 2007 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics, grade: 1,0, University of Duisburg-Essen, course: Language Variation and Change, 13 entries in the bibliography, language: English, ...

U.S. GAAP and German HGB - A comparative Approach

Essay from the year 2003 in the subject Business economics - Accounting and Taxes, grade: 1,5 (A), Oxford Brookes University (Business School), course: International Financial Accounting, 37 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: This essay will compare and contrast the accounting systems of Germany and the United States of Amerika. First the single systems, their core concepts and purposes will be introduced. Second, the two core concepts of conservatism and true and vair value will be presented. Both systems will be examined in order to show how they incorporate these concepts and how this might affect the calculation of profits. Where data is available, selected examples from published company accounts will be shown. Finally some short comments on how the systems come closer to each other since several german companies aim for crosslistings in both countries. A conclusion will summarize the main facts. Different accounting systems might come to different results in their calculations of profits. This can be shown by drawing an example from the Siemens AG’s annual report 2000. In their report based on German GAAP (General Accepted Accounting Principles) the net income in 2000 was 7,901 million €. The same calculation based on U.S. GAAP amounts in the F-20 report for the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) to 8,860 million € (see figure 1). Now the Question is how come this difference of nearly 14%? Is one system more exact? [...] As we have seen in assignment 1, accounting is not a science. It has been developed to serve a purpose. Accounting systems are influenced by several social and economic factors (Radebaugh and Gray, 1997). [...] It seems that German GAAP and US GAAP have different objectives. Therefore we will analyze the two systems in their national contexts now.

This essay will compare and contrast the accounting systems of Germany and the United States of Amerika.

The Islamic Banking System - Not Conductive to the Start-up of Young, Innovative Business Firms

Seminar paper from the year 2006 in the subject Orientalism / Sinology - Islamic Studies, grade: 1,3, Ben Gurion University (Middle East Institute), course: Middle East Economics, 81 entries in the bibliography, language: English, comment: This term paper analyses the Islamic Banking System, derived out of the principles of Islamic Economics, in its consequences for the start-up of young, innovative businesses. An analysis of the Profit-Loss-Sharing concepts Mudaraba and Musharaka, the Leasing Concepts of Ijara and Ijara-wa-iktina and the Trade Financing Concept of Murabaha, illustrated with case studies, explains why this banking system has several disadvanatges for ther start-up of young businessesand how it can be improved., abstract: The Islamic banking system is a relatively young institution that gains influence not only in the Islamic world but also in non-Muslim countries with big Muslim communities. The first Islamic bank, Dubai Islamic Bank, was erected in 1975; today about 265 Islamic finance institutions operate in more than 70 countries, and their assets have increased more than 40-fold since 1982 to exceed $230 billion. More and more western banks erect Islamic branches; the first was Citibank in 1996. This paper discusses the influence of an Islamic banking system on the start-up of young, innovative businesses. A negative influence would hinder these businesses to develop - if not counterbalanced by other measures like state involvement. In non-Muslim countries it would constrain religious Muslims from participating in the contemporary economical changes, determined by an opening-up of markets and privatization, which requires the start-up of new businesses. The Islamic banking system operates according to Islamic law; hence several Islamic restrictions, the most important is the prohibition of riba (=interest), limit its freedom to develop suitable financing instruments for the support of young, innovative businesses. These restrictions enlar

Seminar paper from the year 2006 in the subject Orientalism / Sinology - Islamic Studies, grade: 1,3, Ben Gurion University (Middle East Institute), course: Middle East Economics, 81 entries in the bibliography, language: English, comment: ...

Corporate Governance in Islamic Banks

Seminar paper from the year 2009 in the subject Business economics - Banking, Stock Exchanges, Insurance, Accounting, grade: 2,1, University of the West of England, Bristol, language: English, abstract: Abstract: Islamic banking is a fast growing finance sector with a growth rate of 15% p.a. and assets value over 200 Billion Dollars. Through the renaissance of Islam it is anticipated that in the next 10 years 40-50% of all Muslim savings will be placed in Islamic financial institutions (Zaher and Hassan, 2002). This trend is international recognised and conventional western banks like Citibank, Deutsche Bank and ABN Amro offer already Islamic banking products. Additionally, large international corporations such as GM, IBM and Dewoo use services offered by Islamic financial institutions (Haron and Ahmad, 2000). The in theory praised model of Profit and Loss Sharing faces in reality principal-agency challenges on the asset side of Islamic banks. This paper analyses the complex agency-problem of Islamic banks through their altered capital structure and investment rules whereby the depositors as quasi-shareholder are not matter of corporate governance. The paper examines the consequences and offers a collection of existing alternatives in the literature to handle this agency-problem.

Karime Mimoun. books of Islamic finance are revised. Research key words were
Islamic banking/ finance, profit distribution, agency-problem, profit and loss
sharing. EX-ANTE. CLARIFICATIONS. The. Agency-Problem. The agency-
problem as ...

Islamic Banking Structure and Performance

Master's Thesis from the year 2010 in the subject Business economics - Investment and Finance, grade: Merit, University of Essex (Essex Business School), course: Finance and Investment, language: English, abstract: The dissertation explores the variables in relationship with returns in Islamic Banking.It also introduces the history and governance structure of Islamic Banks in the countries within the study. The analysis is based on 49 banks across countries of varying economic stance from the years 2004 to 2008. Important evidence was found showing significant relationship between market concentration and returns in Islamic banks in most of the countries being studied. These findings are consistent with our expectations. Overall, our results suggest that there are highly significant relationships between returns, capital ratios, market concentration and money supply, which can all be used in assessing performance.

Master's Thesis from the year 2010 in the subject Business economics - Investment and Finance, grade: Merit, University of Essex (Essex Business School), course: Finance and Investment, language: English, abstract: The dissertation explores ...

Magical Realism in Toni Morrison's Beloved and Ana Castillo's So Far from God

Seminar paper from the year 2006 in the subject American Studies - Literature, grade: 1,7, Free University of Berlin (John-F.-Kennedy-Institute), course: The Subaltern Speaks: Minority Literature in the U.S., 17 entries in the bibliography, language: English, comment: The purpose of this paper is not only to probe into the nature of magical realism in the two novels, but also to examine this narrative form as a socio-cultural practice which is connected to a special Weltanschauung.I will expose how Morrison and Castillo employ magical realism, and, in particular, I try to identify its function and the role it plays in terms of Morrison's and Castillo's cultural and historical background. In the conclusion I will expose the parallels between the novels., abstract: In this paper I focus on two considerable U.S. authors: Toni Morrison and Ana Castillo. The fact that these writers - who do not share the same ethnic background - both deploy the literary mode of magical realism in their works has engaged my interest to analyze and compare their novels Beloved and So Far from God. The purpose of this paper is not only to probe into the nature of magical realism in the two novels, but also to examine this narrative form as a socio-cultural practice which is connected to a special Weltanschauung. To enter this vast territory, it will be useful to situate the term magical realism in a theoretical and cultural framework which happens in the following chapter. Subsequently, I will expose how Morrison and Castillo employ magical realism in Beloved and So Far from God, and, in particular, I try to identify its function and the role it plays in terms of Morrison s and Castillo s cultural and historical background. In the conclusion I will expose the parallels which can be drawn between the novels, coming up with the thesis that for these parallels, there are two underlying main functions of magical realism.

In the conclusion I will expose the parallels which can be drawn between the novels, coming up with the thesis that for these parallels, there are two underlying main functions of magical realism.

Motivationsfördernder Unterricht und das Konzept des Brain-Based Learning and Teaching

Studienarbeit aus dem Jahr 2003 im Fachbereich Pädagogik - Schulpädagogik, Note: 1,0, Universität zu Köln (Pädagogisches Seminar der Philosophischen Fakultät), Veranstaltung: Oberseminar: Auf der Suche nach motivierenden Seminarformen, 3 Quellen im Literaturverzeichnis, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: Leidenschaftliches Interesse oder tödliche Langeweile? Wie wir einer Sache begegnen hängt in starkem Maße von unserer Motivation ab. Motivation bestimmt täglich unsere Handlungen, Reaktionen und Beschäftigungen. Sie verleiht uns die Energie zu unserem Tun und bestimmt die Ausrichtung unserer Tätigkeit. In diesem Sinn kann Motivation auch mit dem Motor und dem Lenkrad eines Autos verglichen werden. Entsprechend der großen Bedeutung, die Motivation in unserem Leben hat, existieren eine umfassende Motivationstheorie und eine Vielzahl von Motivationsmodellen, auf die in dieser Arbeit allerdings nicht eingegangen werden kann. Vielmehr soll es darum gehen, die Bedeutung der Motivation für schulisches Lernen und Unterrichten aufzuzeigen. Der Einfluss der Motivation auf kognitive Leistungen wird generell unterschätzt, obwohl die Leistungsmotivation, das heißt das Bedürfnis, Erfolg zu haben, ausschlaggebend für erfolgreiche Lernprozesse ist und sowohl die Quantität als auch die Qualität einer Leistung bestimmt. Wie gelingt es nun einem Lehrer, seine Schüler auf Dauer zu motivieren? Welche Sozialformen und Methoden wirken motivierend und fördern die Leistungsmotivation der Schüler? In dieser Arbeit werden die drei wichtigsten motivationsfördernden sozialen Strukturen sowie verschiedene Motivationstechniken vorgestellt und die Ursachen ihrer motivierenden Wirkung dargelegt. Dabei wird ersichtlich, dass sowohl die intrinsische Motivation, das heißt die Motivation, die ohne erkennbare Belohnung vorhanden ist, als auch die extrinsische Motivation, die von beobachtbaren Belohnungen abhängt, eine Rolle spielt. Die Techniken und Methoden zur Motivationsförderung erhalten dann eine weitere Grundlage durch das Konzept des Brain-Based Learning and Teaching, also des gehirnfundierten Lernens und Lehrens. Hierbei handelt es sich um zwölf Lehr-/ Lernprinzipien, deren Grundlagen in der Gehirnforschung liegen. Renate Nummela Caine und Geoffrey Caine integrierten verschiedenste Aspekte über die Funktionsweise des Gehirns und setzten diese zu bisherigen Vorstellungen vom Lernen und Unterrichten in Beziehung. Die Arbeit soll zeigen, welche Rolle die neurowissenschaftlichen Erkenntnisse für einen motivierenden Unterricht spielen.

Studienarbeit aus dem Jahr 2003 im Fachbereich Pädagogik - Schulpädagogik, Note: 1,0, Universität zu Köln (Pädagogisches Seminar der Philosophischen Fakultät), Veranstaltung: Oberseminar: Auf der Suche nach motivierenden Seminarformen ...

Playing with the Gaze in Hitchcock. The Experience of Visual Pleasure in "Rear Window", "Vertigo" and "Psycho"

Bachelor Thesis from the year 2011 in the subject Communications - Movies and Television, grade: 1,0, University of Heidelberg, language: English, abstract: Woman [...] stands in patriarchal culture as a signifier for the male other, bound by a symbolic order in which man can live out his fantasies and obsessions through linguistic command by imposing them on the silent image of woman still tied to her place as bearer, not maker, of meaning (Mulvey, “Visual Pleasure” 15). Ever since Laura Mulvey published her essay “Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema” in 1975, feminist film theorists have challenged her assertion that films are directed at an exclusively male spectatorship. Despite the fact that Mulvey herself has revised some of her ideas in “Afterthoughts on ‘Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema’ inspired by King Vidor’s Duel in the Sun (1946)” (1981), theorists are still struggling to understand if and how visual pleasure manifests itself for female viewers. In classical Hollywood cinema, this visual pleasure is the result of successful audience manipulation. Cinema is often regarded as a ‘narrative machine’ because “the narrative is delivered so effortlessly and efficiently to the audience that it appears to have no source” (Belton, American Cinema 22). As a rule, the film’s artifice is hidden so well that it remains unnoticed by the audience, conveying the impression that the narrative is “spontaneously creating itself in the presence of the spectators [...] for their immediate consumption and pleasure” (ibid.). Thus, cinema’s visual manipulation techniques enable viewers to experience visual pleasure as they enter the world on screen and become involved in the lives of their screen surrogates. Among the many talented directors in the history of film making, Alfred Hitchcock is known for being one of cinema’s most productive auteurs and a pioneer in the field of visual manipulation. Through his way of directing the camera – and with the camera also the gaze of the spectator – his audience not only appreciates the narrative itself but also, and especially, Hitchcock’s technique of storytelling. By means of simultaneously zooming in and tracking out, combined with point-of-view shots and extreme close-ups, the audience assumes the protagonist’s perspective along with a sense of vertigo, guilt and pleasure. Thus, as a director, Hitchcock is like a criminal who makes the audience his accomplice in a crime that is about to unfold in front of their eyes. [...]

Bachelor Thesis from the year 2011 in the subject Communications - Movies and Television, grade: 1,0, University of Heidelberg, language: English, abstract: Woman [...] stands in patriarchal culture as a signifier for the male other, bound ...